It is important to understand the physical structure of the brain which can provides foundation and insight to the complex nuances of human behavior. The brain acts as a control center by receiving, interpreting, and directing sensory information throughout the body. Anatomically the structure of the brain has three major parts, the forebrain, the hindbrain, and the brainstem. Every brain area has an associated function, although many functions may involve a number of different areas.

 

Know your brain structure

Cerebrum (The Forebrain)

This is the largest area of the brain and is concerned with all higher mental functions, such as thinking and memory. It is made up of two halves or hemispheres. The right cerebral hemisphere controls the left side of the body and the left cerebral hemisphere controls the right side of the body. Each cerebral hemisphere is divided into four areas, known as lobes

Frontal Lobe

Handles the complex thoughts. Involved in planning, organizing, problem solving and selective attention. The anterior (front) portion of the frontal lobe is called the prefrontal cortex. It is very important for the "higher cognitive functions" including behavior and emotions and the determination of the personality. The posterior (back) of the frontal lobe consists of the motor and premotor areas. Nerve cells that produce movement are located in the motor areas. The premotor areas serve to modify movements. The frontal lobe is divided from the parietal lobe by the central culcus.

Parietal Lobe

The parietal lobes contain the primary sensory cortex which controls sensation like touch or pressure. Behind the primary sensory cortex is a large association area that controls fine sensation which are judgment of texture, weight, size or shape.

Occipital Lobe

processes visual information. Not only is the occipital lobe mainly responsible for visual reception, it also contains association areas that help in the visual recognition of shapes and colors. Damage to this lobe can cause visual deficits.

Temporal Lobe

There are two temporal lobes, one on each side of the brain located at about the level of the ears. These lobes allow a person to tell one smell from another and one sound from another. They also help in sorting new information and are responsible for short-term memory. Right Lobe involved mainly in visual memory  like pictures and faces while left lobe involved mainly in verbal memory  such as words and names.

Cerebellum  (The Hindbrain or The Little Brain)

This is the back part of the brain and is concerned with balance and coordination. These activities are carried out automatically by this area of the brain and are not under a person's control or subconsciously. Until now, the cerebellum is not very well understood. It is very old on an evolutionary scale, and you probably can't live without one.

Brain stem

This part controls the basic functions essential to maintaining life, including blood pressure, breathing, heart beat, eye movements and swallowing. It is the bottom part of the brain and connects the cerebral hemispheres to the spinal cord.



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